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  • Basics of Terpenoids and Volatile oil

    Terpenes : Hydrocarbon (C5H8)n

     Terpenoids : Hydrocarbon with oxygenated derivatives
    Terpenes and terpenoids are found in all found in all volatile oils or essential oils.

     Etherenal oil : Evaporate when exposed to air at ordinary temperature.

     Extraction of volatile oils:

    1. Hydro-distillation : Water distillation, Steam distillation
    2. Enfleurage : fresh flower petals spread on fatty material à Fatty layer saturated with volatile principle à which is extracted with lipid solvent
    3. Ecuelle : Oil cells ruptured mechanically using pointed projection by twisting raw material in clockwise direction.

    Classification of Volatile oils:

    1. Alcohol volatile oils: Rose oil, Peppermint, Cardamom, Coriander, Sandalwood, Orange flowers.
    2. Aldehyde volatile oils: Lemon Peel, Citronella, Lemon grass, Bitter almond, Cinnamon, Orange peel.
    3. Ester volatile oils: Lavender, Musterd, Gaultheria
    4. hydrocarbon volatile oils: Turpentine, Black pepper
    5. Ketone volatile oils: Caraway, Civet oil, Musk, Spermint, Buchu, Camphor
    6. Oxide volatile oils: Chenopodium, Eucalyptus
    7. Phenolic ether volatile oils: Anise, Fennel, Nutmeg
    8. Phenol volatile oils: Clove, Creosate, Thyme

    General Chemical test for volatile oils:

    1.  Drug part (usually thin section) –> alc. soln of sudan III à Red colour globules –> indicators of presence of volatile.
    2. Drug part (thin section) –> drop of tincture alkane à Red colour –> indicators of presence of volatile oil.

    Classification of Terpenoids:

    1. Hemiterpene or isoprene                          (C5H8) : Not occur in nature
    2. Monoterpenes or terpenes                        (C5H8)2
    3. Sesquiterpenes                                         (C5H8)3
    4. Diterpenes                                                (C5H8)4
    5. Triterpenes                                               (C5H8)6
    6. Tetraterpenes or carotenoids                    (C5H8)8
    7. Pentaterpenes                                           (C5H8)10
    8. Polyterpenes or rubber                             (C5H8)n 

    Volatile oils containing Terpenoids

    1. Peppermint oil :    Menthol
    2. Fennel oil :           Anethol
    3. Sandalwood :       Santalol
    4. Clove oil :             Eugenol
    5. Citronella oil :      Geraniol, Citronellal, Farnesol
    6. Caraway oil :        Carvone, Limonene
    7. Geranium oil :      Geraniol
    8. Ginger oil :           Zingiberone
    9. Eucalyptus oil :    Cineole

    Monoterpenoids derived from geranyl pyrophosphate
    Sesquiterpnoids derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate
    Diterpenoids derived from geranyl pyrophosphate.

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