- Special Notes Prepared for GPAT/NIPER-JEE Exams.
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1. Blocking the alpha 1 receptor
2. Inhibiting phosphodiesterase enzyme
3. both of the above
4. Blocking beta recptors
1. Overdose of the drug:
Reason: Errors in calculation of amount of dose, Particularly in children or elderly.
|Calculation of dose according to the age, sex, weight and physical condition of the patient and avoiding improper use of prescriptions (reuse).|
Example: The dose of NSAIDs need to be halved in case of children.
2. Improper dosage form:
Reason: Incompatibility of dosage form for patient. Includes inability to take the drug, bad or nauseous taste of drug, large size of dosage form etc.
|Administering the dosage form according to the need, the age and physical condition of patient (Unconscious, vomiting, weak patients cannot take a drug orally )|
Example: Syrups are preferred over tablets for use in paediatric and elderly patients.
3. Contraindicated drug:
Reason: The drug is incompatible with the physical condition or interferes with normal bodily function of the patient.
|Avoiding use of interacting drugs, avoiding use of multiple drugs at a time etc.|
Example: Aspirin is contraindicated in patients with gastric ulcers as aspirin increases GI bleeding.
4. Synergism and Antagonism of drugs:
Reason: Some drugs when given together increase the net effect of each other, called ‘Synergism’. Some cause decrease in the therapeutic activity of the drug, called ‘ Antagonism’.
|The properties of synergism and antagonism are utilized for therapeutic benefit.|
Example: Use of ibuprofen with paracetamol gives increased analgesic effect (Synergism). Use of caffeine with anti-histaminic drugs prevents the drowsiness caused by them (Antagonism).