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  • Therapeutic incompatibility

    1. Overdose of the drug:
    Reason: Errors in calculation of amount of dose, Particularly in children or elderly.

    Calculation of dose according to the age, sex, weight and physical condition of the patient and avoiding improper use of prescriptions (reuse).

    Example: The dose of NSAIDs need to be halved in case of children.

    2. Improper dosage form:
    Reason: Incompatibility of dosage form for patient. Includes inability to take the drug, bad or nauseous taste of drug, large size of dosage form etc.

    Administering the dosage form according to the need, the age and physical condition of patient (Unconscious, vomiting, weak patients cannot take a drug orally )

    Example: Syrups are preferred over tablets for use in paediatric and elderly patients.

    3. Contraindicated drug:
    Reason: The drug is incompatible with the physical condition or interferes with normal bodily function of the patient.

    Avoiding use of interacting drugs, avoiding use of multiple drugs at a time etc.

    Example: Aspirin is contraindicated in patients with gastric ulcers as aspirin increases GI bleeding.

    4. Synergism and Antagonism of drugs:
    Reason: Some drugs when given together increase the net effect of each other, called ‘Synergism’. Some cause decrease in the therapeutic activity of the drug, called ‘ Antagonism’.

    The properties of synergism and antagonism are utilized for therapeutic benefit.

    Example: Use of ibuprofen with paracetamol gives increased analgesic effect (Synergism). Use of caffeine with anti-histaminic drugs prevents the drowsiness caused by them (Antagonism).

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