- Special Notes Prepared for GPAT/NIPER-JEE Exams.
- Prepared Exclusively by GPATOnline Experts Team.
- Detailed and Specific Solution.
- Available Online and Printed Format
1. Pharmacodynamic action of any foreign substance
2. Pharmacokinetic action of any foreign substance
3. Both of the above
1.Sensory input :
a) SNS: Somatic senses and special senses.
b) ANS : Mainly from interoceptors.
2. Motor output :
a) SNS: Voluntary control from cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord.
b) ANS: Involuntary control from hypothalamus, limbic system, brain stem, and spinal cord, limited control from cerebral cortex.
3. Motor neuron pathway:
a) SNS: One-neuron pathway, Somatic motor neurons extending from CNS synapse directly with effector.
b) ANS: Usually two-neuron pathway: Preganglionic neurons extending from CNS synapse with postganglionic neurons in an autonomic ganglion, and postganglionic neurons extending from ganglion synapse with a visceral effector.
4. Neurotransmitters :
a) SNS: All somatic motor neurons release ACh.
b) ANS: All sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons release acetylcholine (ACh). Most sympathetic postganglionic neurons release norepinephrine (NE); those to most sweat glands release ACh. All parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release ACh.
a) SNS: Skeletal muscle.
b) ANS: Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.