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2. α -terpeniol
3. α -pinene
Major action: Suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose output from liver.
Enhance insulin mediated glucose disposal in muscle and fats. biguanides enhance GLUT-1 transport from intracellular site to plasma membrane. (Do not affect the GLUT -4 which is major glucose transporter in skeletal muscle)
Interfere with mitochondrial respiratory chain à promote peripheral glucose utilization à by enhancing anaerobic glycolysis.
Inhibit intestinal absorption of glucose, hexoses, amino acid and Vit B12