Elementary Reactions and Mechanism:
Elementary reactions are steps of molecular events showing how reactions proceed. This type of description is a mechanism.

The mechanism for the reaction between CO and NO2 is proposed to be

Step 1   NO2 + NO2 –>   NO3 + NO   (an elementary reaction)
Step 2   NO3 + CO –>   NO2 + CO2   (an elementary reaction)

Add these two equations led to the overall reaction

NO2 + CO = NO + CO2     (overall reaction)

Molecularity of Elementary Reactions:
The total order of rate law in an elementary reaction is molecularity.
The rate law of elementary reaction is derived from the equation. The order is the number of reacting molecules because they must collide to react.

1. A molecule decomposes by itself is a unimolecular reaction (step);
2. Two molecules collide and react is a bimolecular reaction (step); &
3. Three molecules collide and react is a termolecular reaction (step).

O3 –>  O2 + O     rate = k [O3]

NO2 + NO2 –>   NO3 + NO    rate = k [NO2]2

Br + Br + Ar –>   Br2 + Ar*    rate = k [Br]2[Ar]

GRADUATE PHARMACY APTITUDE TEST (GPAT)- 2018

ALL INDIA COUNCIL FOR TECHNICAL EDUCATION (AICTE) has started conducting the computer based online National level GRADUATE PHARMACY APTITUDE TEST (GPAT). The notification is issued to announce the schedule for conducting computer based online GPAT for admission for academic year 2018-19.

The complete schedule as per the advertisement published by AICTE on the official website.

Registration Starts on 20 october 2017
Last Date for Online Registration 18 December 2017
Print out of Hall ticket First week of  Jan 2018
Computer Based Test Dates 20 Jan 2018
Test Timings -
Declaration of Result yet to be announced
Print out of Score Card After declaration of Result

Eligibility : Bachelor’s degree holders in Pharmacy (4 years after 10+2, including lateral entry candidates) and those who are in the final year of B. Pharmacy course are eligible for appearing in GPAT-2018 examination.

Registration:  online from 20 october, 2017 to 18 December, 2017 on website www.aicte-gpat.in Choice of 3 cities for online examination in the order of preference. Allotment will be based on first come first served. Actual allotment however will be subject to availability of the slots in a particular city.

Test Fees:General and OBC Candidates: Rs. 1400 + Bank Charges as applicable.
SC / ST / PD + Ladies: Rs. 700 + Bank Charges as applicable.

Test Conducted in following Cities: 
Ahmadabad, Gurgaon,  Madurai, Rajkot, Allahabad, Guwahati, Mangalore,Ranchi, Amravati, Gwalior, Meerut, Shimla, Amritsar, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Surat, Aurangabad, Indore, Mysore, Thiruvananthpuram, Bangalore, Jabalpur, Nagpur, Tirupati, Bareilly, Jaipur, Nanded, Udaipur, Bhavnagar, Jammu, Nasik, Vadodara, Bhopal, Kanpur, Nellore, Varanasi, Bhubaneswar, Kochi, Noida, Vijayawada, Chandigarh, Kolhapur, Panaji, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Kolkata, Patna, Warangal, Dehradun, Kozhikode, Pune, Delhi, Kurnool, Raipur, Gulbarga, Lucknow, Rajahmundry.

For detailed information please visit website www.aicte-gpat.in.

Test Series and Study Material: 

GPATOnline.com is a web portal provide whole study material and scheduled test series for GPAT 2018.

The Study material includes All subjects viz. Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical analysis, Physical Pharmacy, Biopharmaceutics, Organic Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence, Dispensing Pharmacy, Cosmetics, Microbiology and Some important topics like Medicinal drug Synthesis, Metabolites, Basic rings, and Formula’s.

Test series 2018 includes subjectwise planed test and learning tool, various practice test and Pre-GPAT 2018 Examination.

For more details visit: www.gpatonline.com

Best of Luck for GPAT 2018…….

Acetyl Value : The acetyl value is the number which expresses in milligrams the amount of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the acetic acid liberated by the hydrolysis of 1 g of the acetylated substance.

 Acetyl value = 1335(b - a)/(1335 – a)

Where, a = saponification value of the substance;
            b = saponification value of the acetylated substance.

Acid Value: The acid value is the number which expresses in milligrams the amount of potassium hydroxide necessary to neutralise the free acids present in 1 g of the substance.

Acid value = 5.61 n/w

Where, n = the number of ml of 0.1 M potassium hydroxide required;
            w = the weight, in g, of the substance.

Ester Value: The ester value is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify the esters present in 1 g of the substance.

Ester value = Saponification value – Acid value.

 Hydroxyl Value: The hydroxyl value is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralise the acid combined by acylation in 1 g of the substance.

Iodine Value: The iodine value is the number which expresses in grams the quantity of halogen, calculated as iodine, which is absorbed by 100 g of the substance under the described conditions. It may be determined by any of the following methods.

A : Iodine Monochloride Method or Wijs Method
B : Iodine Monobromide Method or Hanus Method
C : Pyridine Bromide Method

Peroxide Value: The peroxide value is the number of milliequivalents of active oxygen that expresses the amount of peroxide contained in 1000 g of the substance.

Calculate the peroxide value from the expression,

Peroxide value = 10 (a - b)/w

Where, w = weight, in g, of the substance.

Saponification Value: The saponification value is the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide necessary to neutralise the free acids and to saponify the esters present in 1 g of the substance.

Saponification value = 28.05 (b - a)/w

where, w = weight, in g, of the substance.

Jelly Strength : The jelly strength of Gelatin is the weight, in g, necessary to give a 4 mm depression in a jelly containing 6.67 per cent w/w, matured at 10º, using a plunger 12.7 mm in diameter.

 Loss on Drying : Loss on drying is the loss of weight expressed as percentage w/w resulting from water and volatile matter of any kind that can be driven off under specified conditions. The test is carried out on a well-mixed sample of the substance.

 Loss on Ignition : Loss on ignition is the loss in weight in per cent w/w resulting from a part of any test material, that is volatilised and driven off under specified conditions. The test is performed on finely powdered material; lumps, if any should be broken up with the aid of a mortar and pestle.